Sunday, May 24, 2020

Emily Dickinson - Continuing Enigma

Known for:  inventive poetry, mostly published after her deathOccupation:  poetDates:  December 10, 1830 - May 15, 1886Also known as:  Emily Elizabeth Dickinson, E.D Emily Dickinson, whose odd and inventive poems helped to initiate modern poetry, is a continuing enigma.   Only ten of her poems were published in her lifetime. We know of her work only because her sister and two of her long-time friends brought them to public attention. Most of the poems we have were written in just six years, between 1858 and 1864. She bound them into small volumes she called fascicles, and forty of these were found in her room at her death. She also shared poems with friends in letters. From the few drafts of letters that were not destroyed, at her instruction, when she died, its apparent that she worked on each letter as a piece of artwork in itself, often picking phrases that shed used years before. Sometimes she changed little, sometimes she changed a lot. Its hard to even tell for sure what a poem by Dickinson really is, because she changed and edited and reworked so many, writing them differently to different correspondents. Emily Dickinson Biography Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Her father and mother were both what we would today call distant. Her brother, Austin, was bossy but ineffective; her sister, Lavinia, never married, and lived with Emily and was protective of the much shyer Emily. Emily at School While signs of her introspective and introverted nature were apparent early, she traveled from home to attend Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, an institution of higher education founded by Mary Lyons. Lyons was a pioneer in womens education, and envisioned Mount Holyoke as training young women for active roles in life. She saw that many women could be trained as missionary teachers, especially to bring the Christian message to American Indians. A religious crisis seems to have been behind young Emilys decision to leave Mount Holyoke after a year, as she found herself unable to fully accept the religious orientation of those at the school. But beyond religious differences, Emily also apparently found the social life at Mount Holyoke difficult. Withdrawn Into Writing Emily Dickinson returned home to Amherst. She traveled a few times after that -- once, notably, to Washington, DC, with her father during a term he served in the U.S. Congress. But gradually, she withdrew into her writing and her home, and became reclusive. She began to wear dresses exclusively in white. In her later years, she did not leave her homes property, living in her home and garden. Her writing did include letters to many friends, and while she became more eccentric about visitors and correspondence as she aged, she had many visitors: women like Helen Hunt Jackson, a popular writer of the time, among them. She shared letters with friends and family, even those who lived nearby and could visit easily. Emily Dickinsons Relationships From the evidence, Emily Dickinson fell in love with several men over time, though apparently never even considered marriage. Her close friend, Susan Huntington, later married Emilys brother Austin, and Susan and Austin Dickinson moved to a home next door. Emily and Susan exchanged ardent and passionate letters over many years; scholars are divided today on the nature of the relationship. (Some say that the passionate language between women was simply an acceptable norm between friends in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; others find evidence that the Emily/Susan friendship was a lesbian relationship. I find the evidence ambiguous at best.) Mabel Loomis Todd, a descendent of John and Priscilla Alden of Plymouth colony, moved to Amherst in 1881 when her astronomer husband, David Peck Todd, was appointed to the faculty of Amherst College. Mabel was twenty-five at the time. Both the Todds became friends of Austin and Susan -- in fact, Austin and Mabel had an affair. Through Susan and Austin, Mabel met Lavinia and Emily. Met Emily is not exactly the right description: they never met face-to-face. Mabel Todd read and was impressed by some of Emilys poems, read to her by Susan. Later, Mabel and Emily exchanged some letters, and Emily occasionally invited Mabel to play music for her while Emily observed out of sight. When Emily died in 1886, Lavinia invited Todd to attempt to edit and publish the poems Lavinia had discovered in manuscript form. A Young Contributor and Her Friend The story of Emily Dickinsons poems, with their interesting relationship to womens history, is highlighted by the most fertile period of Emily Dickinsons writing, the early 1860s. A key character in this story is better known in American history for his support of abolition, woman suffrage, and transcendentalist religion: Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Hes also known in history as the commander of a regiment of black troops in the American Civil War; for this accomplishment he proudly used the title Colonel Higginson to the end of his life. He was the minister at the wedding of Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell, at which he read their statement renouncing any strictures that the law placed on the woman when she married, and stating why Stone would keep her last name rather than assuming Blackwells. Higginson was part of the American literary Renaissance known as the Transcendentalist movement. He was already an recognized writer when he published in 1862, in The Atlantic Monthly, a short notice titled Letter to a Young Contributor. In this notice, he solicited young men and women to submit their work, adding, every editor is always hungering and thirsting after novelties. Higginson told the story later (in The Atlantic Monthly, after her death), that on April 16, 1862, he picked up a letter at the post office. Opening it, he found a handwriting so peculiar that it seemed as if the writer might have taken her first lessons by studying the famous fossil bird-tracks in the museum of that college town. It began with these words: Are you too deeply occupied to say if my verse is alive? With that letter began a decades-long correspondence that ended only at her death. Higginson, in their long friendship (they seem only to have met in person once or twice, it was mostly by mail), urged her not to publish her poetry. Why? He doesnt say, at least not clearly. My own guess? He expected that her poems would be considered too odd by the general public to be accepted as she wrote them. And he also concluded that she would not be amenable to the changes that he thought necessary to make the poems acceptable. Fortunately for literary history, the story doesnt end there. Editing Emily After Emily Dickinson died, her sister, Lavinia, contacted two friends of Emilys when she discovered the forty fascicles in Emilys rooms: Mabel Loomis Todd and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. First Todd began to work on the editing; then Higginson joined her, persuaded by Lavinia. Together, they reworked the poems for publication. Over some years, they published three volumes of Emily Dickinsons poems. The extensive editing changes they made regularized Emilys odd spellings, word usage, and especially punctuation. Emily Dickinson was, for instance, very fond of dashes. Yet the Todd/Higginson volumes have included few of them. Todd was sole editor of the third volume of poems, but kept to the editing principles theyd worked out together. Higginson and Todd were likely correct in their judgment, that the public could not accept the poems as they were. The daughter of Austin and Susan Dickinson, Martha Dickinson Bianchi, published her own edition of Emily Dickinsons poems in 1914. It remained until the 1950s, when Thomas Johnson un-edited Dickinsons poetry, for the general public to experience her poems more as shed written them, and as her correspondents had received them. He compared versions in the fascicles, in her many remaining letters, and published his own edition of 1,775 poems. He also edited and published a volume of Dickinson letters, themselves literary gems. More recently, William Shurr has edited a volume of new poems, by gleaning poetic and prose fragments from Dickinsons letters. Today, scholars still discuss and argue over the paradoxes and ambiguities of Dickinsons life and work. Her work is now included in the humanities education of most American students. Her place in the history of American literature is secure, even if the enigma of her life is still mysterious.. Family Father: Edward Dickinson (treasurer of Amherst College, state legislator, U.S. Congressman)Mother: Emily NorcrossTwo siblings: William Austin 1829-1895, Lavinia 1833-1899 Education Amherst Academy (seven years)Mount Holyoke Female Seminary  (one year)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Traditional american family Free Essays

Best One of the chief social problems afflicting this country Is the breakdown In the traditional family (Kennedy 501). We live in the country where we have all different kinds of families, but the traditional family is the strongest one. We need to fight for the traditional family today because it would make a better life for us and our children. We will write a custom essay sample on Traditional american family or any similar topic only for you Order Now Traditional family Is based on a strong foundation, good values and family traditions. First, every family should build their life on the strong foundation. What is the strong foundation for the family? The best foundation for the good family is found In the Bible. God’s plan for the family system Is the best. First, we need to show appreciation every day for each other. Romans 12:10 says, â€Å"Be kindly affectionate one to another with brotherly love; in honor preferring one another. â€Å"Second, we must express our admiration, love, and respect for our family members. Romans 13:7 says, â€Å"Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute Is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear: honor to whom honor (The Bible 1009). Hat Is traditional family? The traditional family is made up of a father, mother and a couple of children. Anything other than this ideal is a deviation from the normalcy of values. According to this point of view, the family Is a basic unit of society that serves the purposes of socializing the young, regulating sexual activity, procreation, providing physical care for family members, givin g psychological support and emotional security to individuals (Bullock 1). A family is not a collection of individuals who happen to live at the same address. They are people who share an intimate and complex connection with one another, being related by marriage, birth or adoption. Together they form meeting larger and more significant than the contribution of one person. Two people, a man and a woman, locked together by love and lifelong relationship. Furthermore, the situation our nation’s families are facing is dire, but there Is hope. When the family returns to the original blueprint that God designed, we will begin to see America strengthened. The family can change the nation in one generation if they will follow God’s Word. What is a family today? What challenges does being a member of a family present while traditional family structures change? Every family has to struggle to balance the demands of work and children. Also, the relationship between each spouse can become more delicate and complicated. Now we can see that the traditional family is stronger and the relationship between husband and wife (if they based on the Bible) are also much stronger and almost Impossible to break It. Therefore, If we will not fight for the traditional family, we will have distraction Inside the family and In our society. Leers look what we have with a breakdown of the American traditional family. Here is some statistics. Currently, 27 percent of family households with minors present are headed by single parents. Over two million fathers are the primary caregivers of children, marking a 62 percent surge since 1990. More than 50 percent of minors will live In a single parent household at some point (Cotton 1). This should be no surprise when one considers the fact that one third of infants are born to unmarried parents. Single motherhood same period. This is not all. The divorce rate is half the marriage rate, which has a tremendous impact on children. Each year one million of them witness their parents legally separate. Further down the line, these kids have a better than even chance of being in a steamily. One out of 25 children will reside with neither parent (1). More children than ever before are enrolled in various state operated foster care programs. Grandparents increasingly find themselves as parents once again; nearly two and a half million are primary caregivers to related minors. That is our sad reality, but we can change that if we work hard in ours families. In addition, family values are very important in traditional family. Members of the traditional families have physical and emotional support whenever they need it. It is a big benefit for the spouses, their children or even grandparents. Children learn how to build a strong traditional family through observing their parents and by following their life examples. Having strong, well defined family values, helps solidify the foundation for a strong family. Strong and consistent family values are important in building trust and confidence in each family member. What is the some of the values of traditional families that keep family strong? It is very important that each member of the family feel that they are loved, that they belong and that they matter. Each person should be allowed the space and freedom to explore the activities that they enjoy. People are more willing to take chances if they know they have a safe place to come back. Just spending time together as a family is what helps build that sense of belonging. Another big value is respect. Respecting each other is to take feelings, thoughts, needs, and preferences in to account when making decisions. It also means acknowledging and valuing everyone’s thoughts, feelings and contributions to the family as a whole. Respect is a very important family value. Respect will extend out of the home and into school, work or other social settings. Honesty -? is the value of any strong relationships. Honesty between mother- daughter, husband-wife, and sister-brother is critical. Without honesty, a deeper connection will not form and certainly won’t last. Encourage honesty by practicing understanding and respect when someone tells you of their wrong doings. Another value is forgiveness. Forgiveness is a choice. Forgiving people who did wrong is an important choice to make. In the loving and respectful family, forgiveness should be an easy choice. People need to forgive, so they could be forgiving. Communication is another important value. When people feel they can talk openly about anything – popes, dreams, fears, successes or failures – all without Judgment, it’s encouraging and strengthens the bond (Kruger 1). That’s why it is so important not only communicate, but also be a good listener. We can see many bad accidents happening around the world, especially lately with all the shootings at the schools. Maybe some of them could be prevented if the kids who were shooting had a strong traditional family with open communications. Almost everyone involved in these tragedies was from broken or divorced families. Next, a good traditional family has good traditions that they have passed from enervation to generation. Why it is so important to have family traditions? We all came from different backgrounds and countries, but it is very important to have and keep traditions of our families. Traditions make a family unique, they draw people important traditions is family dinners. Over the last 15 years, a large number of scientific studies have confirmed what parents have known intuitively for a long time. Sitting down to a family meal is good for the spirit, the brain, and the body. Recent studies link regular family dinners (5 or more meals a week) with a host of teenage behaviors that parents pray for: lower rates of substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and depression, as well as higher grade-point averages and self-esteem (Fishes 1). Dinner conversation is a great booster of vocabulary for young children, and stories told around the table about parents and grandparents help to build self-esteem and resilience. Having family meals also lower the rates of obesity and eating disorders in children. Family dinners is the time to talk and listen. It is one time a day when the whole family is together and they can talk about their day, problems, and future Lana. Lastly, the breakdown of the traditional family and longer life expectancy means two million in their upper ass will face their old age alone. A report warns us that two million over-ass will face loneliness in their old age because of the breakdown of traditional families. Study predicts one in ten over-ass, will live solitary lives by 2033 (Groves 1). Longer life expectancy, the breakdown of extended families and the growing number of older people living alone is making it harder for older people to sustain strong relationships and connections to community life. Let’s summarize hat is the benefits of traditional family. Children raised in a family with the same parents during their growing years have a higher likelihood of having stability in their relationship and emotional bonding. Children that grow up in a single-parent household have higher chances of feeling a sense of loss regarding the absent parent, and miss out on the emotional support that only a father and mother can provide. With both the father and the mother, children get a better sense of what is acceptable and unacceptable, as far as behavior is concerned. Children get a sense insistence, especially when it also includes closeness with other members of the family such as grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins. Children in the traditional family get far more extensive training in life skills. Their mothers usually teach their children relationship skills, like emotional response skills and how to have smooth relations with others, while fathers teach their children handiwork skills and sports skills. With two parents sharing the responsibility of raising the children, it enables one parent to take time to pursue other interests or get a rest while the there parent plays or works with the children. Children that are raised in a traditional family also tend to take on some of the sharing of the responsibilities, such as older siblings taking care of younger siblings. The breakdown of the American traditional family is a serious problem today, but we need to fight for traditional family. First of all, people need to have a strong family relationship based on the strong foundation-?Bible. We need to respect and love our spouses. By doing that, our children would have a strong example to build their strong families. In addition, is it very important to have good family values. People and children who have good families values will also respect and honor people outside their family, at school, work, and in the community. Families need to have a good communication at home and be a good listeners. Having good family traditions, talking, listening, sharing, dreaming, and laughing. It is so important for children to see a good example from their parents about how they treat each other and their own parents. Good traditional family is the healthiest family. Children who have two parents are less likely to get in trouble. They are better students and helpers. Also, elderly people are less likely to be lonely at the end of their life if they been raised and lived in traditional families. How to cite Traditional american family, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Communication and Information Management

Question: Discuss about theCommunication and Information Management. Answer: Introduction The memorandum that will cause retrenchment of workers due to shortages that the company is experiencing is as follows. Dear programmers I would have wished to continue working with you but the current conditions and the uncertainty of the software development department has been compromised. There will be no more working as starting from tomorrow because the company is undergoing through financials constraints. The resources available are only enough to maintain the managers like me in the head of software operations. I will inform you later in case there is vacancies for the former team members, yours sincerely, Felix software engineer at Tablet Company. The core objective of initiating polite communication because the budget cannot accommodate the employees is to inform or to persuade a person to leave the job without hurting the feelings and emotions. I would make a written statement warning the employees of their intended removal from the company prior the due date of being fire d. The Chicago branch is located in the central business district where the office is located of the city. At view park Hotel in Chicago make a right run after crossing the roundabout to branch towards the Monrovia street. Turn on your left and I assure you Dr. Daniel that you will see a billboard that advertises the venue of seminar. Communication is the process of interpreting the information and the meaning among the people working in n environment. This process is conducted with the help of symbols and signs hence the gestures are also utilized in an efficient way. The memorandum that will cause retrenchment of workers die to shortages that the company is experiencing is as follows. Dear programmers I would have wished to continue working with you but the current conditions and the uncertainty of the software development department has been compromised. There will be no more working as starting from tomorrow because the company is undergoing through financials constraints. The resources available are only enough to maintain the managers like me in the head of software operations. I will inform you later in case there is vacancies for the former team members Yours sincerely, Felix software engineer at Tablet Company. The core objective of initiating polite communication because the budget cannot accommodate the employees is to inform or to persuade a person to leave the job without hurting the feelings and emotions. I would make a written statement warning the employees of their intended removal. The company prior the due date of being ascertain activity or to engage in business where it is seemed that the individual be convinced by the message Development of group morale is very important aspect in the organization and this is only facilities by providing sufficient information that will be adopted by planners and in strategic management of the group. The email has been criticed because it has some content that are not informative in a way that they stars the conversation by, Sorry to bother you. This is unsuitable method of initiating conversation over the email because the person being addressed is aware of the fact athat the job is to be undertaken. The alternatves that could be used are such as: Dear sir this is to inform you pertaining to the job you have been assigned that there are specific requiremensts and amendments needed, Kindly submit the solution and the work on time. The alternative of pharaisng the email in formal way such as revision of work undertaked is more appliocable. The email conversaiton criticims is untimely because most ogf the workers do not check their inbox texts. This issue could be sloved by using the telephone converstion to replace the email that only result to junk in the client device. Social media has been detriment al and a big problem in organisations,the wide usage of he platform is altering the communicaiton between organisations given that people re always glued on theeri devices . The non verbal communicaiotn is the reason why people in the working environment have become reluctant ato tair their grievances and talk with communities and individula. Thomas said that Opinions and ideas relayed by use of social media platform by teenagers (Richard, 1999, p.455) The sender of the message in business is the manager or the higher hierarchy person who issues instruction s to the receiver the junior staff. The subordinates can be the recipient of the information which may be instructions or order delivery. Alex said that corporate governance and strategic management among the entities in management field where everyone knows what their coworkers have on their plate (Erick, 2007, p.3345). Communicating and sharing the same goals in case where the company works to develop strong bonds with each other. The unity is enhanced and visions of the entity spread to each and every one by keeping in touch with the customer base. The channels and media used in this process may be blogging for one to connect with the customers and reaching them in their geographical location. The message is supposed to be concise and straight t the point for quick response and feedback to be obtained. Feedback is where the open environment facilitates talking comfortably with each other by expressing the ideas through many directions. The feedback is important to the employees in regarding to how the company instituted policies and procedures are working. When the customers feel that they are listened to and attention is paid to them the reputation of the business will grow and generation of more profit. The informal communicaiton is usein grapevines where peoole interact with the formal system to accommodate their social and phyycological needs. Richard argues that elevating the attitudes of employers in the companies by human resources management (Sarah, 1999, p.677). The factors that hinder communication include the deversity in skills which affect the todayss environmenrt and this greatly affects oness success. The barriers to intercultural communicaion include the stereotyps etnocentrism , personal spce requirement and the interpretaiton of time. There is need to improve the employees relationship by learning how to read the body language to better enhance undersanding what those around you are portraying or saying even when they are silent. Cooperation will show itelsef in increased areas where productivityis experienced throughout the company. Gilbert said that Communication process in the organization dealing with training and induction of employees (Thomas, 2001, p.234) Global intelligence is required to enhance success by encompassing the intellectual capacityof indivisuals in theperspective of knowledge, motivaiton, and adaptability of the behavious. The aspect of telecommuting reduces the time spent bofore communicaiotn reaches the raret and thus increading eh work flexibility Works Cited Gilbert, K. (2001). Communication process in the organization dealing with training and induction of employees, New York: Herman press. Thomas, H. (2003). Opinions and ideas relayed by use of social media platform by teenagers. Sydney: Austria press. Richard, J. (1999). Elevating the attitudes of employers in the companies by human resource management . Journal of efficient transformation in the organizations. 34. 233-454. Alex, C. (2007). Corporate governance and strategic management among the entities in management field, Hungary: Austria press. Source: The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher (2011, May)

Friday, March 27, 2020

The Effects of Global Warming on Rain Forests Essay Example

The Effects of Global Warming on Rain Forests Paper Contents of Paper Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earths atmosphere and oceans since the late 1 9th century and its projected continuation. It has affected many parts of our world, most known and some unknown. One area of Earth that has been affected in particular is the rainforests. Although the effects of global warming can seem immeasurable, because humans and forests alike have been blamed for current conditions, global warming is causing plants and vegetation to grow at alarming rates, animals in the rainforests to go extinct, and ultimately it will cause changes in human life. There is no doubt that the tropical rainforests of the world are in danger. Every hour approximately six species of life in our tropical rainforests are strayed. Experts agree that the number one cause of extinction in the tropical rainforests is due to the destruction of the tropical rainforests environment (as cited in Pants (2012). Some scientists believe that the effects of gl obal warming are not easily measurable. According to (Kerry, 2008) we cannot accurately measure the effects of global warming on the rainforests. Kerry (2007) writes, One reason is the complexity of the system, in which land surface processes are tightly coupled to the atmospheric hydrodynamics. Another reason is that the climate has a highly regional hereafter, and the adjacent Andean topography is so steep it cannot be resolved properly. (Para. 2). Although measurements may not be accurate, it is a known fact that we have seen some dramatic changes in the worlds tropical forests. Since global warming causes higher temperatures in our atmosphere, it affects all life on earth. Higher temperatures in rainforests cause plants and trees photosynthesis rates to decline. As a result, this causes stunted plant growth and reduces the forests capacity to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, (Ignition, 2003, Para 5) and carbon dioxide is he most serious agent of global warming (Reuters, 2004). According to Reuters, (2004) studies suggest, Carbon Dioxide levels have risen by 30 percent in the past 200 years. This is due to emissions from automobiles and forest burning (Para. 6). We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of Global Warming on Rain Forests specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of Global Warming on Rain Forests specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of Global Warming on Rain Forests specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Research also shows that the Tropical Rainforests itself contributes to global warming. According to (Ignition, 2003) because of deforestation, large amounts of CO, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide is released into the atmosphere from freshly cut, decomposing, or burnt trees. Also, live trees release a substantial amount of water vapor. This moisture contributes irately to the greenhouse gases. Research from (Reuters, 2004), shows that, the growth of large trees in the Amazonian rainforests have accelerated over the past novo decades while the growth of smaller ones has slowed. For example, an independent study that was conducted (Reuters, 2004), 18 undisturbed plots in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon were monitored since the asses. Of 115 tree genera, they found that two became significantly more common and 14 became significantly rarer over the 1 5 years of the study. The winners tended to be tall, relatively fast-growing canopy trees, while the users tended to be slower-growing trees that live their whole lives in the dim depths of the forest below the canopy No past anomalies in rainfall Were found that might explain this pattern of change. A second, independent set of study plots nearby showed similar changes (Para. 12). It seems there is a cloud of death that lives among the plant and animal life in rainforests. As a result there is an increasing competition for light, water, and nutrients in the soil. Because oftenest changes, places like the Amazon Rainforests are at risk of being lost much sooner than they ever should. Recently, there have also been numerous animals that have gone extinct in our rainforests. Because of global warming, forests are experiencing warmer climates, which means that animals whose population would thinness be controlled by the colder climates are flourishing. Species that have adapted to the cold depend on mountaintops for shelter. When climate and humans alike ravish their homes, they now have nowhere to go. Additionally, the extinction of tropical species can be attributed to global warming. For example, (Greeters, 2011) list the Golden Toad, the Madeira Large White Butterfly, and the Java Tiger s being extinct currently due to global warming and its affects. Animals in the rain forest are not the only species that are affected by global warming. There are other animals that live in different ecosystems that are in danger of becoming extinct due to these effects. There are far too many to name, but here are a few: Canadian polar Bear; South American Sea Turtles; American North Atlantic Whale; Chinese Giant Panda; Indonesian Orange-tan; African Elephants; and Indian Tigers. (Worldwide Endangered Animal List, 2012) Not only will global warming affect the animals and plants of the rain forest, but unmans will be affected as well. Millions of plants and animals help humans to understand and treat a lot Of disease and ailments that are exclusive to humans. By losing our rain forests to global warming and human activities, humans lose things like maple syrup, peanuts, coffee, strawberries, chocolate, trout, honey, and many, many, more things that are an expected norm for humans. All living creatures, especially humans, will gain more pollen and grass weed which causes allergies, fire hazards which threaten our homes and communities, rising water levels, and a treasure trove of other great and rebel things that can occur. Global warming has many causes and many effects. Although animals and plants dont have the mental capacity to worry about things such as global warming, it is something that humans should be concerned about. Humans contribute to deforestation, and green house gases everyday. The temperature in our atmosphere has risen and is causing the death of forests ATA much higher and alarming rate. This destructive pattern that has been started will eventually compromise the very air that we breathe. Humans have the capacity to learn, understand, and ultimately make changes that will benefit all life on earth.

Friday, March 6, 2020

History of popular culture Essays - Parades, Mardi Gras, Carnival

History of popular culture Essays - Parades, Mardi Gras, Carnival History of popular culture 'Functions of festivals in Early Modern Europe...' University level Essay History of Popular Culture 'What were the functions of popular festivals, etc. in Early Modern Europe? And why did the authorities, civil and ecclesiastical seek to control or suppress them?' In Early Modern Europe festivals were the setting for heroes and their stories, to be celebrated by the populace. They posed a change from their everyday life. In those days people lived in remembrance of one festival and in expectance of the next. Different kinds of festivals were celebrated in different ways. There were festivals that marked an individual occasion and weren't part of the festival calendar, like family festivals such as weddings and christenings. Some took place at the same time every year and were for everyone, like community festivals like the different saints' days. Pilgrimages took place all year round. Annuals festivals like Christmas and Midsummer always took place on the same day every year. In those days the average village in Western Europe celebrated at least 17 festivals annually, not counting family occasions and saints' days. Some festivals, such as Carnival, lasted several days or sometimes even several weeks. In the Netherlands Carnival started every year at the 11th of November (St. Martin) and culminated in a big festival of 'Dranck, pleijsier ende vrouwen' (Drink, fun and women) at the end of the Carnival period, preceding the period of Lent. Festivals were meant to take the minds of the people off their everyday life , off the hard times and their work. Everyday life in Early Modern Europe was filled with rituals, both religious and secular. Songs and stories played an important role in their lives, although they sometimes adjusted the details of the legends and stories to fit the way they thought a certain festival should take place. Popular culture was mixed with ecclesiastical culture in many ways. The story of St. John the Baptist is a good example of this. The ancient ritual of bathing and lighting fires during Midsummer's Eve was a remnant of a ritual from the pre-Christian period. Fire and water, symbols of purification, could be seen as the tools of St. John the Baptist, and therefore a combination of the two elements of popular and ecclesiastical culture was obvious. It looks as if the Medieval Church took over the festival and made it theirs. The same thing happened to the Midwinter Festival, which became linked with the birth of Christ, on 25 December. There are many more examples to be found, such as the connection between St. Martin and geese caused by the fact that the St. Martins Day (11 November) coincided with the period during which the people used to kill their geese in the period preceding the Christian period. Carnival plays a special role in popular culture in Early Modern Europe. It is a great example of a festival of images and texts. It was a popular festival, taking on different forms in different regions of Europe. Aside from regional variations, these differences were also caused by factors such as the climate, the political situation and the economical situation in an area. On a whole Carnival started in late December or early January and reached its peak upon approaching Lent. The actual feast, taking place at the end of the festive period, could take days and would usually involve large quantities of food and drinks. The festival took place in the open air in the centre of a town or city. Within a region, the way Carnival was celebrated varied from town to town. The festival was a play, with the streets as a stage and the people as actors and spectators. They often depicted everyday life scenes and made fun of them. Informal events took place throughout the Carnival period. There was massive eating and drinking, as a way of 'stocking up' for Lent. People sang and danced in the streets, using the special songs of Carnival, and people wore masks and fancy-dress. There was verbal aggression, insults were exchanged and satirical verses were sung. More formally structures events were concentrated in the last days of the Carnival period. These events took places in the central squares and were often organised by clubs or fraternities. The main theme during Carnival was usually 'The World Upside Down'. Situations got turned around. It was an enactment of the world turned upside down. Men dressed up as women, women dressed up as men, the rich traded places with the poor, etc. There was physical reversal: people standing on their heads, horses going

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Police Brutality. Is it increasing Is the Media Making It more then it Research Paper

Police Brutality. Is it increasing Is the Media Making It more then it is - Research Paper Example Several injuries and deaths have been recorded by the use of police powers in the form of chemical sprays, restraints, electro shock, dogs, and guns etc. More over a term â€Å"POLICE BRUTALITY† is best used to explain the above mentioned acts. It can be defined more precisely as: â€Å"Police brutality is the ill or irresponsible use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially in the form of verbal attacks and psychological threatening by a police officer or police† (Dudley, 1991) The term â€Å"Police brutality† was coined 1st time in 1893 in THE NEW YORK TIMES, described an incident of beating of a civilian by a police officer. Modern police system was based on the developments in 17th and 18th century in France (Dudley, 1991) Brutality cases’ were seemed to be raised with labor strikes, such as â€Å"steel strike 1919†, â€Å"Great Railroad Strike 1877†, â€Å"Pullman Strike 1894† etc. (Rofleff, 1999). It is important to note that, it is understood that police brutality targets people, belonging to a less effective, powerless groups like (poor, disabled etc.). Police brutality has its root in many countries. Police brutality includes acts like (Racial Profiling, political repression, sexual abuse, false arrest etc.). In Indonesia, police targets Islamic extremists; they are either killed or captured. On august 30th 2010, police officers in Central Sulawesi province opened fire into a crowd of people which was claiming and protesting against the local man’s death, 34 people were injured and 5 killed (Rofleff, 1999). In People’s Republic of China, several â€Å"police harassment cases† have been reported by foreign journalists. In Russia, it is claimed by the Human Rights activists that â€Å"tortured techniques are used by police to gather false or wrong information from the arresters etc. There are mainly two reasons, 1st is concerned with individual’s acts (psychologica l state) and 2nd is dealt with the system and organizational practices of the police departments. Police brutality is greatly concerned with the approach one individual has, that is it is mostly done by the bad officers or cops who are likely to use powers over others or one who wants to suppress others on behalf of powers. It is also a justified argument that police work does attract those individuals who are fond of use of powers and to threat others. Researchers develop basically 5 unique types of officers, which are: â€Å"personality disorders, previous traumatic job-related experience, young inexperience and macho officers, officers with personal problems and officers who are not perfect with their patrol styles† (Gerdes, 2004). Some examples like personal disrespect that is when officers are disrespected by anyone. The officers annoys and to please his ego he can do something which is a crime in front of law , also there is a situation of racial profiling, so the offic er is likely to charge crimes on individual of particular class or race wrongly which is counted as brutality (Dudley, 1991). On the other hand system and organization has its own impact, it is assumed or theorized that excessive powers’ use by some officers is being taught by the more higher or experienced officers to the younger ones. Some young police officers when enter the force comes in direct link with group of officers and experience a re-socialization process. Many officers think that their training is just a â€Å"